Friday, November 2, 2007

Sharing something about Shares

Friday, November 2, 2007
1.What is a share ?
A share or stock is a document issued by a company, which entitles its holder to be one of the owners of the company. A share is issued by a company or can be purchased from the stock market.
By owning a share you can earn a portion and selling shares you get capital gain. So, your return is the dividend plus the capital gain. However, you also run a risk of making a capital loss if you have sold the share at a price below your buying price.

2.How does one trade in shares ?
Every transaction in the stock exchange is carried out through licensed members called brokers.
To trade in shares, you have to approach a broker However, since most stock exchange brokers deal in very high volumes, they generally do not entertain small investors. These brokers have a network of sub-brokers who provide them with orders.
The general investors should identify a sub-broker for regular trading in shares and place his order for purchase and sale through the sub-broker. The sub/broker will transmit the order to his broker who will then execute it .

3.What is a Demat Account ?
Demat refers to a dematerialised account.
Just as you have to open an account with a bank if you want to save your money, make cheque payments etc, you need to open a demat account if you want to buy or sell stocks.
So it is just like a bank account where actual money is replaced by shares.
You have to approach the DPs (remember, they are like bank branches), to open your demat account.
Let's say your portfolio of shares looks like this: 40 of Infosys, 25 of Wipro, 45 of HLL and 100 of ACC.
All these will show in your demat account.
So you don't have to possess any physical certificates showing that you own these shares. They are all held electronically in your account.
As you buy and sell the shares, they are adjusted in your account.
Just like a bank passbook or statement, the DP will provide you with periodic statements of holdings and transactions.

4.Is a demat account a must?
Nowadays, practically all trades have to be settled in dematerialised form.
Although the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), has allowed trades of upto 500 shares to be settled in physical form, nobody wants physical shares any more.
So a demat account is a must for trading and investing.

5.Where do I begin?
Look for a DP to have an account with
Most banks are also DP participants, as are many brokers.
You can choose your very own DP.
To get a list, visit the NSDL and CDSL websites and see who the registered DPs are.
A broker is separate from a DP. A broker is a member of the stock exchange, who buys and sells shares on his behalf and on behalf of his clients.
A DP will just give you an account to hold those shares.
You do not have to take the same DP that your broker takes. You can choose your own.
But many brokers offer special incentives in the form of lower charges for opening demat accounts with their DPs.
Get your documents in place
Once you approach your DP, you will be guided through the formalities of opening an account.
You must fill up an account opening form and sign an agreement with your DP.
The DP will ask for some documents as proof of your identity and address.
Check with them what they require. For instance, some may accept a driver's license, others may not.
Here is a broad list (you won't need all of them though):
• PAN card
• Voter's ID
• Passport
• Ration card
• Driver's license
• Photo credit card
• Employee ID card
• Bank attestation
• IT returns
• Electricity/ Landline phone bill
While they only ask for photocopies of the documents, they will need the originals for verification.
You will have to submit a passport size photograph on which you sign across.
How many shares you need to have to open an account
When opening an account with a bank, you need a minimum balance.
Not so with a demat account. A demat account can be opened with no balance of shares.
And there is no minimum balance to be maintained either. You can have a zero balance in your account.

6.What will it cost?
The charges for account opening, annual account maintenance fees and transaction charges vary between DPs. To get a comparative idea, visit the websites of NSDL and CDSL.

When you open an account, the DP will allot a unique BO ID (Beneficial Owner Identification) Number, which you need to quote for all future transactions.
If you want to sell your shares, you need to place an order with your broker and give a 'Delivery Instruction' to your DP.
The DP will debit your account with the number of shares sold. You will receive the payment from your broker.
If you want to buy shares, inform your broker about your Depository Account Number, so that the shares bought are credited into your account.

8.What is a Bull Market ?
Bull markets are movements in the stock market in which prices are rising and the consensus is that prices will continue moving upward. During this time, economic production is high, jobs are plentiful and inflation is low. Bear markets are the opposite--stock prices are falling, and the view is that they will continue falling. The economy will slow down, coupled with a rise in unemployment and inflation.

Hope U got some ideas about share market,Happy investing.